Compiled by Ioseph of Locksley, OL, Pel, &c

(c) copyright 1995 W.J. Bethancourt III all rights reserved

Use of this material in OFFICIAL publications of the SCA Inc. is FORBIDDEN

  "and he sewed up the bludy hyde, and a pipe of wine put in...."
                                             -Old English Folksong

                                      "What's a 'Cubit'......????"


Weights: Stone = 14 pounds = 6.35 kg
         Firkin = 56 pounds = 24.83 kg
         Clove = 7 to 10 pounds
         Kip = half a ton = 227 kg
         Shilling(weight) = 3/5 ounce = 17 grams
         Pennyweight = 24 grains
         Hundredweight = 112 pounds = 50.8 kg
         Fardel = 4 Cloves (28 to 40 pounds)
         Burthen = 1 Firkin plus 1 Stone (70 pounds)= 31.78 kg

Measures: Inch = 3 barleycorns laid end to end (the width across the
                                                knuckle of the thumb)
          Foot = 36 barleycorns laid end to end (the width of the foot)
          Palm = 3"
          Hand = 4"
          Span = 9" (the distance from the end of the little finger to
                                the end of the thumb of a spread hand)
          Cubit = 18" (the length of the arm from elbow to fingertip)
          Yard = the distance from the nose to the fingertips, about 2 cubits.
          Pace = 2 1/2 feet (the measure of one stride)

            .......or the appropriate measure on the Body of the King.

          Ell = 4 feet = 101.92 cm
                English Ell = 45 inches = 114.30 cm (14th Cent.)
                Flemish Ell = 27 inches = 68.58 cm (14th Cent.)
                Scots Ell = 37.2 inches
          Fathom = 5 1/2 yards = 5.027 m
          Perch = 6 feet = 1.0828 m
          Pole/Rod = 5 1/2 yards
          Fall = (Scots) 6 (Scots) ells
          Sajene (Norse) = 7 feet (used in Russia also) 
          Half-sajene = 3 1/2 feet (used in Russia also)
          Furlong (one furrow-long) = 220 yards = 240.7 m  
                     (pre-17th Cent = 625 feet)
          Rood =  A rectangle one furlong by one pole
          Burgh-Rood = about twenty feet
          Cable = 120 fathoms = 603.24 m
          Mile = 1000 double paces; 8 furlongs; 880 fathoms; 1.609 Km
          Scots Mile = 1984 yards
          League = 3 miles = 4.827 Km
          Acre = the amount of land a yoke of oxen can plow in one day;
                 Four roods (40 poles by 4 poles)
          Acre = (Scots) a rectangle 40 falls by 4 falls
          Ploughgate = roughly 104 acres
          Husbandland = 26 acres; 2 oxgangs
          Oxgang = 1/8 of a ploughgate; 13 acres

                       (1 Meter = 118 barleycorns)
     Liquids: Noggin/gill = 1/4 U.S pint; 113.5 ml
              Mutchkin ( Scot.) = 4 gills
              2 Mutchkins = 1 Choppin = 1 Qt.
              Firkin = 1/2 kilderkin
              Runlet = a scant kilderkin
              Kilderkin = 2 firkins; 1/4 tun; 63 U.S. gallons 
              Barrel = 31.5 U.S. gallons
              Hogshead = 2 barrels; 63 U.S. gallons
              Pipe/Butt = 2 hogsheads; 1/2 tun; 4 barrels; 126 U.S. gallons
              Puncheon = if wine: 84 U.S. gal          
                         if beer/ale: 72 U.S. gallons
              Tun = 2 pipes; 4 hogsheads; 8 barrels ( if wine);
                                      252 U.S. gallons

              Note: the Scots Pint was equal to 2 Quarts
                    the Scots Quart was equal to 1 Gallon
                    the Scots Gallon was equal to 4 Gallons
                    the Scots Boll was equal to 12 Scots Gallons (dry measure)
                    the Scots Firlot was equal to 1/4 Boll
                    the Scots Chalder was equal to 16 Bolls

     Numbers: Century = one hundred of anything
              Score = twenty of anything

     Mongol Measurements: as of circa 1350 in the city of Sarai

                          Length: 100 pichi = 118 Braza of Venice
                                  Venetian Braza = (unknown)

                          Weight: 1 mena = 6 lbs. 2 Oz.
                                  20 mena = 1 kanter

     Chinese Measurements:

                          Weight: 1 catty = about 1 1/2 pounds = 681 gr

     Islamic Measurements:

                          Weight: 1 dirham = roughly 1/8 ounce = 3.5 gr

     Others: Se'ennight ("Seven Night") = 1 week
             Fortnight ("Fourteen Night") = 2 weeks
             Widdershins = countersunwise (left to right)
             Sunwise = right to left

                       * MONETARY VALUES *

        DIOCLETIAN: (3rd Cent. CE)

        1 Libra = 408 g. of gold = 20 gold Solidus
        1 Solidus = 12 silver denarius

        The above was the basic value system that Western European, Byzantine
and Islamic coinage was based around. An equal weight of silver was valued at
1/12 that of an equal weight of gold.

        7th Century CE: 1 solidus = 40 denarius

        Bear in mind that purchasing power, and the actual gold and silver 
content of coins, varied. The following is ONLY a rough approximation of 
values, though it's pretty close, based on 14th century values.


        1 Lb. of pure silver = 1 Livre / English pound
        1 Livre / Pound = 240 silver pennies
        1 Livre / Pound = 20 Shillings / Sou
        1 Shilling / Sou = 12 silver pennies

        In France, 20 sous was approximately one days pay of one knight, or
four archers, or hiring a cart and two horses for twenty days, or the pay of 
a peasant for two years.


        1 Florin/Ducat = 3.5 grams of pure gold

        The Florin, Ducat, Franc, Livre, Ecu, Mark, and Pound are more or less
equivalent, depending on the period, and the amount of actual gold/silver 


          20 Pounds of silver = 1 sumo
                       1 sumo = 120 tamgha

     SCOTLAND: (values of coins)
          2 Doits = 1 Bodle
          2 Bodles = 1 Plack or Groa(t)
          3 Placks = 1 Shilling
          40 Placks = 1 Merk (Mark)
          20 Shillings = 1 Pound

          Circa 1300, the Merk seems to have been valued at 2/3 of an English 
Pound, (13 Shillings, 4 Pence), and the Florin worth 18 Scots shillings in
1431 (8 shillings of actual silver.)

                        INFLATION IN SCOTLAND

        The Pound (1 lb. of silver) would be rendered into 240 pennies, in an
absolutely pure coinage. Inflation, and debasement of the currency, is 
illustrated in the following table:

              1150 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 252 pennies
              1367 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 352 pennies
              1393 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 528 pennies
              1440 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 768 pennies
              1451 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 1,152 pennies
              1483 CE: 1 Pound of silver = 1,680 pennies

        Up to about 1368 CE, the English and Scots coinage seem to be on a par
with each other, but in the reign of James III, four Scots Pounds equalled one
English Pound, and by 1603 CE, -twelve- Scots Pounds equalled one English 


          The basic unit of coinage was the silver Penny, which was worth about
one day's labour.


                      THE COST OF KNIGHTHOOD

      Knighthood was so expensive that many persons, although possessing 
the ways and means, refused dubbing to avoid the expenses of knighthood.  
        In Genoa, in the first half of the 13th century:

         A Helm cost 16 to 32 shillings
         A Hauberk cost 120 to 152 shillings; 
           with accessories the cost went to about 200 shillings.

      In late 13th Century England, there were some 1,250 knights (earls 
and barons included), of whom only some 500 were capable of mobilization.  
At the same time, there were up to 1,750 non-knights who had sufficient 
revenue to become knights if they so desired.  The Crown, made 26 
attempts between 1224 and 1272 to enlist all men possessing the knightly 
fee of 20 pounds. 

Payments in lieu of Knightly service:


      At the end of the 12th Century, the 50 knights of Bury St. Edmunds 
paid the abbot 29 pence every 20 weeks rather than mount watch. The rate 
of scutage in England in the second half of the 12th Century was levied 
at the rate of 6 pence per day, that is 240 pence or 1 pound per the 
standard 40 day period of service.  Contamine also says that, "In 1227 
Frederick II, preparing his crusade, ordered that in the kingdom of 
Sicily 'every fief-holder should pay for each fief eight ounces of gold 
and every eight fiefs should provide a knight'; in other words, from each 
group of eight fees the King-Emperor would get one knight and 64 ounces 
of gold which represented about a year's pay at current rates." 


      One of the uses of the money thus collected was the payment of 
militia.  In Perugia and Florence in the 13th Century, the militiamen 
were paid from the first day of the campaign.  This pay amounted to 5 
shillings per foot soldier, 10 shillings for a man with one horse, 15 for 
a man with two horses (Perugia), 3 for crossbowmen, 2 shillings 8 pence 
for archers, 2/6 for pavasiers and 2 shillings for ordinary foot soldiers 
in Florence. 


      Fief rents were, in effect, annual pensions paid for eventual 
service.  (Keep in mind that this is not the actual pay drawn while on 
service.) Contamine gives the case of Fernand de Jean as an example. This 
worthy, a Castilian knight who had abandoned the service of the king of 
Castile, had been in receipt of an annual income of 300 livres from that 
source.  For his first year in service to Philip III of France, he 
received the same sum for life in exchange for homage to Phillip III 
above all others (except Philip's nephews, sons of his sister Blanche, 
and  Fernando of Castile).  He was required to serve Philipe with 10 
knights freely for 40 days a year, presenting himself and men within 6 
weeks of summons.  He was only required to serve only the lands of the 
king of Aragon, Castile, and Portugal, in the kingdom of Navarre, in 
Gascony and in the county of Toulouse.  After the 40 days he would draw a 
daily wage of 7 shillings 6 pence (tournois), with no provisions for 
replacing of lost horses. 

       Contamine gives the daily rates for soldiers in England and France 
c. 1150-c.1300 as: 

                  Knights       foot soldiers

     1150-70      6d
     c.1165       8d                    1d
     c.1196       1s
     c.1215       2s                    2d
     c.1250       2s
     c.1300       2,3,or 4s*            2d+

France (in livres tournois)

     1202         7s 6d                 10d
     1295      10s, 12s 6d, or 15s**    12d++

                         *in silver: 31.12g, 46.49g or 62.24g
                         +in silver: 2.6g
                         **in silver: 33.48g, 41.85g, or 50.22g
                         ++in silver: 3.34g

 In the Crecy campaign, of the Hundred Years War, the pay scale was:

               For a Knight-Banneret: Four shillings a day
               For a Knight: Two shillings a day
               For a Man-at-Arms: One shilling a day
               For a mounted Archer: sixpence a day
               For a foot Archer: threepence a day
               For a foot Soldier: twopence a day     

 Rates of pay, per day, for the Agincourt campaign:

               Dukes: 13 shillings 4 pence
               Earls: 6 shillings 8 pence  
               Barons: 4 shillings
               Knights: 2 shillings  
               Other men-at-arms: 1 shilling   
               Archers: 6 pence

 The total number recruited was 2000 knights and men-at-arms and 8000 archers.

        (In comparison, in civil life a Master Carpenter in England, at 
        the time of the Crecy campaign, received threepence a day, and a 
        reaper twopence. Land rented for fourpence an acre per year.)



I thought it might perhaps be instructive to look at an example of a King's
Retinue on a campaign. Specifically that of King Henry V in his campaign into
France which came to such a dramatic close with Agincourt (Oct 25, 1415).

              120  Knight with Mynors
              25   Master Gunners with others
              50   Servitor gunners (2 each)
               1   Stuffer of Bacynets
              12   Armurers
               3   Kings of Arms
               1   Mareschal of Arms
               4   Valletz Peyntours
              28   Sergeant with Yeoman of the Pavilions
               1   Phistian {with 3 archers}
              20   Surgeons
              60   Master of the Horse and grooms
               1   Surveyor of the stable
               1   Clerk of the Stable
               1   Clerk of the Avenrie
              12   yomen Purveyours
               1   Grome of the Horses
               2   King's Guides by Night
              12   Smiths
               9   Sadlers
               1   Clerk of the Marshalcy
               1   Cofferer of the King's Household
              41   Esquire with yomen
               8   Servitors of the King
               8   Yomen of the King
              86   Yomen of the King's Household
              13   Yomen
               3   Pages, Messangers of the King's Chamber
               3   Yomen of the King's Poultry
               8   Yomen of the Bakehouse
               3   Clerks of the Kitchin, Pantry and Buttery
               1   Clerk Yoman of the Napery
               3   Clerks of the Spicery
               1   Clerk of Poultry
               2   Clerks of the Scullery
              15   Scullery
               1   Clerk of the Bakehouse
               1   Clerk of the Hall
               6   Carpenters of the Hall
              19   Labourers of the Hall
               2   Bowgemen
               2   Clerks of the wardrobe
               1   Tailor (w/2 archers)
              26   Cordwaners
              124  Master Carpenter and other Carpenters
               6   Fletchers
               6   Bowyers
               6   Wheelwrights
               2   Colliers
              120  Labourers
               2   Almoigners
               2   Law Clerks (with 2 archers)
               16  Chaplains
               14  Others of the Revestry
               15  Minstrels

              Total : 967



     1 square mile = 640 acres = 259 hectares

     Apothecaries' Weights: 1 scruple = 20 grains
                            1 dram = 3 scruples
                            1 ounce = 8 drams
                            1 pound = 12 ounces

     Approximations: 1 teaspoon holds about: 60 drops
                                             5 ccs
                     1 tablespoon holds about: 1/2 fl. oz.
                                               3 teaspoons
                     1 tablespoon holds about: 15 ccs
                                               15 grams
                                               1/8 gill
                                               1/16 cup
                     "a few grains" = less than about 1/8 teaspoon
                     a dash = about 1/4 to 1/3 teaspoon
                     a pinch = about 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon
                     1 saltspoon = about 1/8 teaspoon
                     1 fluid drachm = about 3/4 teaspoon


               "Friar Bacon? Oh, just a harmless old coot..why?"

                           CHEMICAL NAMES

 Many of the older names for certain chemicals are no longer in use. The 
 Author and the publisher assume no responsibility for any errors that might
 occur in this list. Further information would be welcomed.

                OLD NAME                        NEW NAME 

          Acid Potassium Sulphate         Potassium Bisulphate
          Acid of Sugar                   Oxalic Acid
          Alcali Volatil                  Ammonium Hydroxide
          Alcohol Sulphuris               Carbon Disulphide
          Alumina                         Aluminium Hydroxide
          Ammonia                         Ammonium Hydroxide
          Antimony Black                  Antimony Trisulphide
          Antimony Bloom                  Antimony Trioxide
          Antimony Glance                 Antimony Trisulphide
          Antimony Red                    Antimony Oxysulphide
          Antimony Vermillion             Antimony Oxysulphide
          Aqua Fortis                     Nitric Acid
          Aqua Regia                      Nitro Hydrochloric Acid
          Bitter Salt                     Magnesium Sulphate
          Blue Copperas                   Copper Sulphate
          Bone Ash                        Impure Calcium Carbonate
          Bone Black                      Animal Charcoal
          Brimstone                       Sulphur
          Butter of Antimony              Antimony Trichloride
          Butter of Tin                   Stannic Chloride Hydrated
          Butter of Zinc
          (killed spirits)                Zinc Chloride
          Calomel                         Mercurous Chloride
          Caustic Soda                    Sodium Hydroxide
          Chile Nitre                     Sodium Nitrate
          Chile Saltpeter                 Sodium Nitrate
          Chromic Acid                    Chromium Trioxide
          Copperas (Iron Sulphate)        Ferrous Sulphate
          Corrosive Sublimate             Mercuric Chloride
          Corundum                        Aluminium Oxide
          Ferro Prussiate                 Potassium Ferricyanide
          Flores Martis                   Anhydrous Ferric Chloride
          Flowers of Sulphur              Sulphur
          Gallic Acid                     3,4,5,Trihydroxybenzoic Acid
          Grain Alcohol                   Ethyl Alcohol
          Grain Vitriol                   Ferrous Sulphate
          Green Vitriol                   Ferrous Sulphate
          Hard Oil                        Boiled Linseed Oil
          Iron Perchloride                Ferric Chloride
          Iron Pernitrate                 Ferric Nitrate
          Iron Protochloride              Ferrous Chloride
          Iron Persulphate                Ferric Sulphate
          Jeweler's Etchant               3 g. Silver Nitrate
                                            + 3 g. Nitric Acid
                                            + 3 g. Mercurous Nitrate
                                            + 100 cc Water
          Killed Spirits                  Zinc Chloride
          K.N.S. Solution                 10 g. Ammonium Carbonate
                                            + 20 g. Ammonium Peroxydisulphide
                                            + 200 cc Ammonium Hydroxide
          Lime                            Calcium Oxide
          Liver of Sulphur                Melted Potassium Carbonate + Sulphur
          Lunar Caustic                   Silver Nitrate Toughened
          Muriate of Mercury              Mercuric Chloride
          Muriatic Acid                   Hydrochloric Acid
          Nitre                           Potassium Nitrate
                                          or: Sodium Nitrate
          Nitrate of Silver               Silver Nitrate
          Nordhausen Acid                 Fuming Sulphuric Acid
          Oil of Mars                     Deliquesent Anhydrous Ferric Chloride
          Oil of Vitriol                  Sulphuric Acid
          Orthophosphoric Acid            Phosphoric Acid
          Oxymuriate of Mercury           Mercuric Chloride
          Oxymuriate of Potassium         Potassium Chlorate
          Pearl Ash                       Potassium Carbonate
          Plumbago                        Graphite
          Prussic Acid                    Hydrocyanic Acid
          Purple Crystals                 Potassium Permanganate
          Quicksilver                     Mercury
          Red Prussiate of Potash         Potassium Ferricyanide
          Sal Ammoniac                    Ammonium Chloride
          Salts of Lemon                  Potassium Acid Oxalate 5% solution
          Salts of Sorrol                 Potassium Acid Oxalate 5% solution
          Salt of Tartar                  Potassium Carbonate
          Salt of Vitriol                 Zinc Sulphate
          Salt of Wormwood                Potassium Carbonate
          Saltpeter                       Potassium Nitrate
          Sal Volatile                    Ammonium Carbonate
          Slaked Lime                     Calcium Hydroxide
          Salts of Hartshorn              Ammonium Carbonate
          Soda                            Sodium Carbonate
          Soot                            Carbon
          Spencer's Acid                  3 g. Silver Nitrate
                                            + 3 g. Nitric Acid
                                            + 3 g. Mercurous Nitrate
                                            + 100 cc Water
          Spirits of Hartshorn            Ammonia Water
          Spirits of Salt                 Hydrochloric Acid
          Spirit of Nitrous Ether         Ethyl Nitrite
          Spirits of Wine                 Ethyl Alcohol
          Sugar of Lead                   Lead Acetate
          Sulphuric Ether                 Ethyl Ether
          Sweet Spirits of Nitre          Ethyl Nitrite Spirit
          Tetrachloromethane              Carbon Tetrachloride
          Tincture Ferric Chloride        Ferric Chloride
                                             + Ethyl Alcohol
          Tincture of Steel               Ferric Chloride
                                             + Ethyl Alcohol
          Tin Salt                        Stannous Chloride
          Verdigris                       Copper Acetate
          Vitriol                         Sulphuric Acid
          Water Glass                     Sodium Silicate
          Whiting                         Calcium Carbonate
          Yellow Prussiate of Potash      Potassium Ferrocyanide

NB: Some of these names were used in children's chemistry sets as late as
    the mid-1950's CE. I repeat: Neither the Author, nor the publisher,
    are responsible for any errors that may have ocurred in transcription
    or printing, and assume NO responsibility for the use thereof. Use at
    your own risk.
    I do, however, wholeheartedly recommend getting hold of a book:

                    Henley's Formulas for Home and Workshop
                    Gardner D. Hiscox, M.E.; Avenel 1979

    This little gem, a facsimile reprint of the 1927 Revised Edition, gives
    more information than anybody will know what to do with. If you are at
    all involved with period arts/crafts, you NEED this book.


                    (No Warranty is expressed or implied)

             NAME                            NATURAL STAIN

        Alkanet Root                    Alkanna Tinctoria
        Asphaltum                       Mixture of natural bitumens & asphalt
        Fustic                          Pulverized dried Sumac leaves
        Logwood                         Haematoxylin

             NAME                            CHEMICAL STAIN

        Verdigris                       Cupric Acetate
        Madder                          Acid Alizarine Blue
        Pearlash                        Potassium Carbonate Anhydrous
        Soot                            Carbon
        Common Soda                     Bicarbonate
        Dragon's Blood                  A resin extracted from the fruit of
                                        the maylayan rattan palm
        Purple Crystals                 Potassium Permanganate

                              HERBAL NAMES

Note: the Author and the Publisher assume NO responsibility for any errors 
      that may have ocurred in this list thru transcription or printing, nor
      is any responsibility assumed for any use thereof. Use at your own risk!

    COMMON NAME             MUNDANE NAME            LATIN NAME

    Adder's Mouth           Stich Wort              Stellaria media
    Adder's Meat                                    Microstylis ophioglossiodes
    Adder's Tongue          Dogstooth Violet        Erythronium Americanum
    Ass's Ear               Comfrey                 Symphytum officinale
    Bear's Ear              Auricula                Primula auricula
    Bear's Foot             Stinking Hellbore       Helleborus foetious
    Beehive                 Snail Plant             Medicago scuttellata
    Beggar's Tick           Cockhold                Bidens frondosa
    Bird's Eye              False Hellebore         Adonis vernalis
    Bird's Tongue           European Ash            Fraxinus excelsior
    Black Boy Resin                                 Xanthorrhoea arborea
    Bloody Fingers          Foxglove                Digitalis purpurea
    Bull's Eyes             Marsh Marigold          Caltha palustris
    Bull's Foot             Coltsfoot               Tussilago farfara
    Calf's Snout            Toadflax                Linaria vulgaris
    Catgut                  Hoary Pea               Tephrosia virginiana
    Cat's Eye               Star Scabious           Scabiosa stellata
    Cat's Foot              Canada Snake Root       Asarum canadense
    Cat's Foot/Paw          Ground Ivy              Nepeta glechoma
    Cat's Milk              Wartwort                Euphorbia helioscopia
    Chicken Toe             Crawley Root            Corallorhiza ordontorhiza
    Cock's Comb             Yellow Rattle           Rinanthus christagalli
    Cow's Tail              Canada Fleabane         Erigeron canadense
    Crow Foot               Cranesbill              Geranium maculatum
    Devil's Milk            Wartwort                Euphorbia helioscopia
    Dog's Tongue                                    Conoglossum officinale
    Donkey's Eyes           Cowage Plant            Mucuna puriens (seeds)
    Dove's Foot             Cranesbill              Geranium sylvaticum
    Dragon's Claw           Crawley Root            Corallorrhiza odontorrhiza
    Dragon's Eye                                    Nephalium loganum
    Duck's Foot             American Mandrake       Podophyllum peltatum
    Eye of Newt             (Unknown)               (Unknown)
    Fairy Fingers/Gloves    Foxglove                Digitalis purpurea
    Flesh and Blood         Tormentil               Potentilla tormentilla
    Fox Tail                Club Moss               Lycopodium clavatum
    Foal's Foot             Coltsfoot               Tussilago farfara
    Frog's Foot             Bulbous Buttercup       Ranunculus bulbosis
    Goat's Beard            Vegetable Oyster        Tragopogon porrofolius
    Goat's Foot             Ash Weed                Aegopodium podograria
    Hare's Foot             Clover                  Trifolium arvense
    Hedgehogs                                       Medicago intertexta
    Horse Tail              Scouring Rush           Equisetum hyemale
    Horse Tongue            Hart's Tongue           Scolopendrium vulgare
    COMMON NAME             MUNDANE NAME            LATIN NAME

    Hound's Tongue          Vanilla Leaf            Liatris odoratissima
    Jew's Ear               Fungus on Elder/Elm     Peziza auricula
    Lamb's Tongue           Ribwort Plantain        Plantago lancelolata
    Lizard's Tail           Breast Weed             Sarurus cernuus
    Lizard's Tongue                                 Sauroglossum
    Mother's Heart          Shepherd's Purse        Capsella bursa pastoris
    Mouse Ear               Mouse Blood Wort        Hieracium pilosella
    Mouse Tail              Common Stonecrop        Sedum acre
    Negro Head              Vegetable Ivory         Phytelephas macrocarpa
    Old Man's Beard         Fringe Tree             Chionanthus virginica
    Ox Tongue               Bugloss                 Anchusa officinallis
    Rabbit's Foot           Field Clover            Trifolium arvense
    Shepherd's Heart        Shepherd's Purse        Cabella bursa pastoris
    Snake Head              Balmony                 Chelone glabra
    Snake Milk              Blooming Spurge         Euphorbia corollata
    Snake's Tongue          Adder's Tongue Fern     Ophioglossum vulgatum
    Squirrel Ear            White Plantain          Goodyear repens
    Stag Horn               Club Moss               Lycopodum clavatum
    Stinking Goose Foot                             Chenopodium foetidum
    Swine Snout             Dandelion               Taraxcum dens leonis
    Toad                    Toadflax                Linaria vulgaris
    Unicorn's Horn          False Unicorn           Helgonias dioica
    Wolf's Claw             Lycopodium              Lycopodium clavatum
    Wolf's Foot             Bugle Weed              Lycopus virginicus

                              ROMAN NUMERALS
             I - 1                 VI - 6               XL - 40    
             II - 2                VII - 7              L - 50
             III - 3               VIII - 8             LX - 60
             IIII or IV - 4        IX - 9               XC - 90
             V - 5                 X - 10               C - 100
                        D - 500              M - 1000
       NOTE: in manuscript, III and IIII sometimes written iij and iiij


              CANONICAL HOURS                     THE WATCHES OF THE NIGHT

 Matins and Lauds: between midnite and dawn           Evening
 Prime: 6 am (sunrise)                                Midnight
 Tierce: 9 am  (also called Underne)                  Cock-crow
 Sext: 12 noon                                        Morning
 None: midafternoon; 3 pm
 Vespers: late afternoon; before nightfall
 Compline: before bed 


        Baptisim              Wisdom                    Avarice
        Ordination            Understanding             Sloth
        Penance               Counsel                   Envy
        Extreme Unction       Fortitude                 Anger   
        Confirmation          Knowledge                 Pride
        Marriage              Piety                     Gluttony
        Eucharist             Fear of God               Lust        
       THE SPLENDID VIRTUES                   THE ORDERS OF ANGELS      
     Faith    Hope     Charity             Seraphim  Cherubim  Thrones
   Prudence Temperance Fortitude        Dominions  Powers  Principalities
            Justice                            Archangels  Angels

                            THE LIBERAL ARTS

                   Trivium: Grammar  Logic  Rhetoric  
           Quadrivium: Arithmetic  Geometry  Astronomy  Music

                        THE NINE MALE WORTHIES

       the Ancients:           the Jews:            the Christians:

      Hector of Troy            Joshua             Arthur of England
    Alexander the Great       King David             Charlemagne
      Julius Caesar         Judas Maccabeus       Godfrey of Boullion

                         THE NINE FEMALE WORTHIES

          The Ancients:                               The Jews:

  Semiramis, Queen of Assyria                Deborah, the Judge of Israel
Tenthesilea, Last of the Great Amazons            Jael, the Kenite
 Tomyris, from the City of Tamyris             Judith, Lady of Bethulia

                             The Christians:

                            Maude of Germany
                          Elizabeth of Castile
                             Joan of Naples

                           THE (14) HOLY MARTYRS

       St. Catherine                                    St. Margaret
       St. Achatius      St. Giles         St. George   St. Christopher
       St. Blaise        St. Cyriac        St. Denis    St. Erasmus
       St. Eustace       St. Pantaleon     St. Vitus    St. Barbara

                           THE (16) PEASANT SAINTS

    St. Genevieve    St. Simon Stylites  St. Veronica   St. Macarius
    St. Lomer        St. Anastasius      St. Blandina   St. Henry of France
    St. Basilides    St. Quirinus        St. Nabor      St. Nazarius
    St. Crescentia   St. Modestius       St. Potamiana  St. Basilides

                        THE HERALDIC TINCTURES

 The Colours: Gules (Gu.)-red                   Bleu-celeste (Bl.C.)-sky-blue
              Azure (Az.)-deep blue             Murrey (Mu.)-mulberry
              Sable (Sa.)-black                 Sanguine (S.)-blood-red
              Vert (Vt.)-green                  Tenne (T.)-tawny orange
              Purpure (Purp.)-purple            (note: the above four are not
                                                       used at this time in 
                                                       the SCA)
 The Metals: Or (Or.)- gold or yellow
             Argent (Arg.)- silver or white

 The Furs: Ermine (Erm.)- white (NOT silver) with black "tails"
           Vair (Vair)- white (NOT silver) and blue "pelts" or "bells"
           Potent (Pot.)- White (NOT silver) and blue "T" shapes
           Plumetty (Plum.)- of feather designs
           Papillone (Pap.)- of scaled designs

 Variants of Ermine:  Ermines - white tails on black
 Variants of Ermine:  Erminois - black tails on gold
                      Pean - gold tails on black

 Variants of Vair: Counter Vair
                   Vair en Pale              (You will have to see 
                   Vair en Pointe             illustrations of these
                                              to fully understand.)
 Variants of Potent: Counter-potent
                     Potent en Pointe


                          THE SEVEN CRUSADES

                     The First Crusade: 1096-1099
                     The Second Crusade: 1146-1149
                     The Third Crusade: 1189-1192
                     The Fourth Crusade: 1202-1204
                     The Fifth Crusade: 1218-1221
                     The Sixth Crusade: 1228-1229
                    The Seventh Crusade: 1245-1269

                            Other Crusades:

                     The Children's Crusade: 1212
             The Crusade of Thibault of Champagne-Navarre
                   and Richard of Cornwall 1248-1252
            The Crusade of Louis IX of France to Tunis 1270
                     The Crusade of Nicopolis 1396
                   The Albigensian Crusade 1208-1229


                      THE PATRON SAINTS OF THE NATIONS 
                           with their Saints' Days

                                             "God, Saint George and England!"
                                                                    -Henry V

                           Alsace: Odila, Dec. 13  
                          Aragon: George, April 23                       
                 Armenia: Gregory the Illuminator, Sept. 30
                          Bartholomew, Aug. 24                       
                  Asia Minor: John the Evangelist, Dec. 27    
                          Bavaria: Kilian, Nov. 13
                          Belgium: Joseph, March 19  
                         Bohemia: Ludmilla, Sept. 16
                            Wenceslaus, Sept. 28
                      Corsica: Julia of Corsica, May 22
                            Crete: Titus, Jan. 26
                          Cyprus: Barnabas, June 11
                      Czechoslovakia: Procopius, July 8
                            Wenceslaus, Sept. 28
                           Denmark: Ansgar, Feb. 3
                                    Canute,Jan. 19
                          England: George, April 23
                     Finland: Henry of Uppsala, Jan. 19
                            France: Denis, Oct. 9
                         Frisia: Willibrord, Nov. 7
                           Genoa: George, April 23
                       Georgia (Russia): Nino, Dec. 15
                          Germany: George, April 23
                           Greece: Andrew, Nov. 30
                         Holland: Willibrord, Nov. 7
                         Hungary: Stephen I, Aug. 16
                           Ireland: Brigid, Feb. 1           
                                    Patrick, Mar. 17
                     Italy: Catherine of Siena, April 29
                         Lithuania: Casimir,March 4
                     Madrid: Isadore the Farmer, May 15
                          Milan: Veronica, Jan. 13
                           Moravia: Cyril, Feb 14
                            Norway: Olaf, July 29
                          Paris: Genevieve, Jan. 3
                          Persia: Maruthas, Dec. 4
                          Poland: Casimir, March 4
                         Portugal: Vincent, Jan. 22
                         Prussia: Adalbert, Jun. 20
                          Romania: Nicetas, Jun. 22
                          Rome: Philip Neri, May 26
                           Russia: Andrew, Nov. 30
                                   Nicholas, Dec. 6
                           Ruthenia: Bruno, May 17
                         Scandanavia: Ansgar, Feb. 3
                          Scotland: Andrew, Nov. 30
                          Silesia: Hedwig, Oct. 15
                Slovakia: Our Lady of the Assumption, Aug. 15
                            Spain: James, July 25
                           Sweden: Ansgar, Feb. 3
                         Switzerland: Gall, Oct. 16
                          Venice: George, April 23
                            Wales: David, March 1
 note: if no Saint is listed as a National Patron, it means either that the 
       Saint in question was canonized after 1650, or none was found. More 
       information is solicited in this matter, please!


                         THE CHRISTIAN CALENDAR:
                           a short explanation

        The Christian calendar is based around Easter, which is a
        movable holiday. It is the first Sunday after the full Moon
        which happens upon or next after the 21st of March, and if the
        full Moon happens on a Sunday, then Easter is the next Sunday
        The rest of the Calendar of the Christian Church has fixed Feasts,
        and movable Feasts. The Fixed are listed in a "Boke of Days" under
        their appropriate date. The Movable are calculated as follows:

        Septuagesima Sunday is nine weeks before Easter
        Sexagesima Sunday is eight weeks before Easter
        Quinquagesima Sunday is seven weeks before Easter        
        Shrove Tuesday is the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday
        Ash Wednesday is the beginning of Lent, 40 days before Easter
        Quadragesima Sunday is six weeks before Easter
        Maundy Thursday is the Thursday before Good Friday        
        Good Friday is the Friday before Easter
        Holy Saturday is the Saturday before Easter
        Easter: see above
        Rogation-tide is the three days before Rogation Sunday
        Rogation Sunday is five weeks after Easter
        Ascension Day is forty days after Easter
        Whit-Sunday,or Whitsuntide, is seven weeks after Easter
        Trinity-Sunday is eight weeks after Easter
                        THE LITURGICAL COLOURS

 White: Christmas, Easter, Corpus Christi, The Feast of St. Mary, and Feasts
        of Saints that are not Martyrs.
 Red: Pentecost, Palm Sunday, Holy Cross, and Martyred Saints.
 Green: The period following Trinity and Epiphany.
 Purple: Advent, Lent.
 Black: Funerals and Requiems (modern usage)
 Yellow: Is attributed to Judas, and was commonly mandated to be worn by
         Jews, in Medieval times.
 Blue: Is associated with the Virgin Mary.

        The "Book of Common Prayer" of the Protestant Episcopal Church has a
        very fine series of tables with which to find Easter Day. 


                          THE PAGAN HOLIDAYS

     The Greater Sabbats are: Samhain (New Year): October 31st
                              Imbolc (Winter Purification): February 1st
     (note: names may vary)   Beltane (Fertility): May 1st
                              Lughnasadh (Death of the Sacred King): Aug 1st

     The Lesser Sabbats are: Summer Solstice: June 21st
                             Spring Equinox:  March 21st
                             Winter Solstice: December 21st
                             Autumn Equinox:  September 21st

     The above dates are those that have become traditional in many circles.
     However, these are calculated, in reality, differently than our mundane
     calendar's occasionally arbitrary dates. Remember, the Celts reckoned 
     the day from sundown to sundown, rather than from midnite to midnite,
     as we do, so: the Lesser Sabbats are determined by the Sun entering the
     Cardinal Elemental Zodiacal (C.E.Z.) Sign.

     Each of the Greater Sabbats are thus celebrated on the fortieth
     evening following the DAY of the actual Solistice or Equinox.
     If the event (entering the C.E.Z. Sign) occurs during darkness, the
     Sabbat is celebrated that night, if during daylight, the night before.

     Not all of the Pagan holidays are quite the same from Tradition to
     Tradition, i.e.:

                January 1:    Birth of the Sacred King
                February 2:   The Goddess names and arms him
                March 23:     He "rides forth in splendor"
                April 30:     He becomes the Lover of the Goddess
                June 24:      He is killed by his Dark self
                August 2:     He is (symbolically) eaten as/in grain
                September 22: His Death is mourned by the Goddess
                October 31:   He is conducted to the Other World
                              from whence He escapes
                December 22:  He awaits Death

                        THE MENDICANT ORDERS:

                      Franciscans: Grey friars
                      Dominicans: Black friars
                      Carmelites: White friars
                      Trinitarians: Red friars


                    THE NAMES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK


     Monday        Lunae Dies      Monan Daeg       (Day of the Moon)

     Tuesday       Tiwas Daeg      Dies Martis      (Day of Mars (Tyr)

     Wednesday     Mercurii Dies   Wodnes Daeg      (Day of Mercury (Woden)

     Thursday      Dies Jovis      Thunres Daeg     (Day of Jove (Thor)

     Friday        Dies Veneris    Frize Daeg       (Day of Venus (Freya)

     Saturday      Saturni Dies    Saeturnes Daeg   (Day of Saturn)

     Sunday        Dies Solis      Sunnan Daeg      (Day of the Sun)


                         NEW WORLD VEGETABLES

             Corn (maize)       potatoes          tomatoes
             red peppers        sweet potatoes    tapioca
             chocolate          pumpkins          squashes
             non-soy beans      peanuts           coconuts
             pineapples         strawberries      raspberries
             vanilla            papayas           guavas


  From a study which appears in: "Genetic Study of Genius" Vol. 2, by 
  Catherine Morse Cox, copyright 1926 Stanford Press. The IQ's are 
  estimated based upon various analytical elements, including performance 
  before the age of 17. Presumably, these are on the Stanford-Binet scale. 

   Galileo  (Astronomer)                              145
   Leonardo da Vinci (Artist, inventor)               135
   Baruch Spinoza (Philosopher)                       130
     (Note that those below this level would likely be
      below the 98th percentile required for MENSA)
   Hernando Cortes (conqueror of Mexico)              115
   Martin Luther (Religious reformer)                 115
   Rembrandt van Riijn (Dutch Painter)                110
   Copernicus (Astronomer)                            105
   Cervantes (Writer: Don Quixote)                    105

                            THE COST OF WAR

                   The "Wars of the Roses" cost the lives of: Two Kings
                                                             One Prince
                                                              Ten Dukes
                                                         Two Marquesses
                                                       Twenty-one Earls
                                                     Twenty-seven Lords
                                   One hundred and thirty-three Knights
                                    Four hundred and fifty-one Esquires
and eighty-four thousand, nine hundred and ninety-eight common soldiers.

 This calculation does not count wounded, disabled or missing in action. 


                          SHAKESPEARE'S PLAYS

                    " was Phillip Marlowe..or Bacon.. 
                      might have been Walt Kelly, though..."
                                              -Anne Hathaway

       Titus Andronicus                        Hamlet
       King Henry VI Pt 1                      All's Well that Ends Well
       Love's Labour's Lost                    Measure for Measure
       The Comedy of Errors                    Troilus and Cressida
       The Two Gentlemen of Verona             Othello
       A Midsummer Night's Dream               King Lear
       King Henry VI Pt. 2                     Macbeth
       King Henry VI Pt. 3                     Antony and Cleopatra
       King Henry V                            Coriolanus
       The Taming of the Shrew                 Timon of Athens
       The Merry Wives of Windsor              Pericles
       Much Ado About Nothing                  Cymbeline
       As You Like It                          The Tempest
       Twelfth Night                           The Winter's Tale
                                               King Henry VIII


                         PERIOD GAMES FOR CHILDREN

                                 "Hey, Kid! Wanna Play?"

      The following are games known to have been played by children in
      the Medieval/Renaissance period:

      Knucklebones/Jacks      Dolls                   Toy Mill
      Soap bubbles            Pets                    Hobbyhorse
      Fife/drum               Mud Pies                Toy Soldiers
      Hoops                   Pig's-bladder balloon   Make-Believe 
      Buck Buck               "Store"                 Building with bricks
      Bounce the Baby         Leapfrog                Tug of War
      Odds or Evens           Running the Gantlet     Blindman's Bluff
      Somersaults             Headstands              Swings
      Sandpiles               Climbing a Fence        King of the Mountain
      Tilting                 Riding a Fence          Beat the Kettle
      Stilts                  Walk, Moon, Walk        Loggats
      Tipcat                  Marbles                 Baste the Bear

      Cellar Doors            Wrestling               Crack The Whip
      Span Button             Follow the Leader       Swinging on a Rail
      Balancing a Broom       Piggyback               Whipping Tops
      Frau Rose               Making "cheeses"        Climbing a Tree
      Swimming                Shouting into a Barrel  Rattles
      Carry My Lady to London   Throwing rocks        Mumblety-peg
      Ring-Around-the-Rosie   Dice                    Horsie
      Riding Barrels



TUNING: The strings are named low to high, i.e. in the mandolin
        tuning given, G D A E, the "G" is the lowest note, and the "E" is 
        the highest. The strings are numbered with the highest pitched being
        #1 and proceeding thru the lowest string, which has the highest 
        number....confusing, but traditional.

  *  Modern Instruments (standardized tunings) given for comparison:

Guitar Family:

         Modern Guitar: E A D G B E          
                        D A D G B D ("Double "D" " Good for modal ballads
                                     in "D")
                        D A D G B E ("Drop "D" ", good for stuff in "D")
                        D A D D A D (I use this one for simulating an Oud,
                                     for belly dance music)
         "Terz" Guitar: G C F Bb D G
         1/4 size Guitar: A D G C# E A
         Requinto: G C F Bb D G
         Vihuelita: C F Bb D G (the 4th string, the "F", is tuned an
                               octave high in a ukelele style re-entrant
         Tenor Guitar: G D A E (one octave lower than a mandolin)
                       G D B E (1st four strings of the modern guitar)
                       G D B E (same as above, with the 4th string tuned an
                               octave high, in a re-entrant tuning)

         To tune a guitar to "lute" tuning, use a Tenor Lute (see below)
            tuning from "E": E A D F# B E, for "old" tuning, or just leave
            it in EADGBE, for "new" tuning.

Mandolin Family:

         Mandolin: G D A E (same as violin)
         Mandola: C G D A
         Octave Mandolin: G D A E (one octave lower than a Mandolin)
         Mando-Cello: C G D A (one octave lower than a Mandola)
         Bouzouki: D A D A
                   D G B E
                   G D A E
                   D A F C


         Ukelele: A D F# B  (4th string, "A", in higher octave,
                            re-entrant tuning)
         Tiple: (Pronounced TEE-play) C E A D (South American version. 4th
                                              string, "C", is octaved)
         Tiple: (Pronounced TIPPLE) A D F# B (North American version. 2nd, 3rd
                                             and 4th, "A", "D", and "F#", are

    *  Older Instruments (the tuning may or may not be these same tones,
       but the relationships between the strings will remain the same):

Lute: "new" tuning: 8-course E# B A D G C# E A (descant tuning: see below)
      "new" tuning (Virdung ca. 1500): G C F A D G (the "viel accord")(alto)
      "old" tuning: 8-course E# B A D G C# E# A (descant tuning: see below)
      "Sharp" tuning: G C F A C E
      "Flat" tuning: G C F Ab C Eb
      "Accord Nouveau": A D F A D F  (17th Cent.)

      Praetorius mentions the following tunings for various kinds of
          lute (note: 1st string only is given; string relationships
          remain the same):

                 Small octave Lute: D or C
                 Small descant Lute: B 
                 Descant Lute: A
                 Choir or alto Lute: G
                 Tenor Lute: E
                 Bass Lute: D
                 Large octave bass Lute: G

Arch Lute: same as Descant Lute, with extra bass strings tuned descending
Theorbo: F G A B C D E F G C F A D G (or the same intervals one tone higher)
Arch Mandore: C G C G C
              C F C F C
Mandora: C G C G C
         C F C F C
Pandurina: G D G D
Bandora: C D G C E A
         G C D G C E A
Opharion: G C F A D G
          (a seventh course was added to the bass after 1600; it may also
          be tuned like a Lute)
Cittern: mandolin tuning: G D A E (same as Octave Mandolin)
                          D G B D (open "G", same as modern Plectrum banjo)
                          D G C D ("G Dorian mode")
             five-course: G D G B D (open "G")
                          G D G B D (open "G", with the 5th string as a
                                     re-entrant, the same as a modern 5-string
                          C D G B D
                          A D G A D
                          A D G B E (same as Gittern)
                          D G D G D
                          A D A D A
                          A E A E A
                          D G D A E
         Lafranco (1533): A C B G D E
     Adrian LeRoy (1565): A G D E
           Virchi (1574): D F B G D E
Cetarone (bass cittern): Eb Bb F C G D A E B G D E
                         (a re-entrant tuning is also mentioned, but
                         no intervals are given, by Agazzari in 1607)
Guittern: A D G B E (same as modern guitar, but without the low E string)
          A D G B E (re-entrant: 4th string an octave high)
4-Course Guitar: Probably similarly to the 5-Course Guitar, but without the
                 5th string(s) (see below)
5-Course Guitar: ca. Mid-1500's
                 D D G B E (4th and 5th, "D", tuned in same octave as 1st,
                           "E," in a re-entrant tuning)
                 A D G B E (5th string one octave lower than 1st thru 4th)
                 A D G B E (same as first five of modern guitar)
Vihuela de Mano: G C F A D G
                 C F Bb A D G 
                 C F Bb A D G (note: tune to the same sound as a ukelele,
                               with the 4th string, the Bb, in the next octave 
                               higher than the  5th and 3rd. This is known as
                               a "re-entrant" tuning and is very period.)
                 You may also use any standard Lute tuning.
Cytole: D G B E (re-entrant: 4th string (D) in higher octave similar to the
                ukelele. I dare say you could use a tenor ukelele, or even
                a tenor guitar, to stand-in for this instrument.)
Mandora: G D G D (in bass range. A mando-cello will work here quite well) 
Guitarra Moresca: I suggest tuning it like a Cittern, as the descriptions of 
                  it's sound from period Ms. would seem to indicate a "5th"
                  relationship tuning.
Guitarra Latina: Probably tuned like a Cittern, or like a Cytole, but if you
                 use a Cytole tuning, tune several tones lower.
Poliphant: Eight wire-strung courses tuned like a Lute, plus about 15 diatonic
           bass strings on a harp frame, similar to the Harp-Guitar of the
           early 1900's in the USA.
Stump: Seven wire-strung courses tuned in "old" Lute tuning, plus 8 open bass
       strings on a harp frame.

        Remember that many of these instruments are strung in pairs of 
strings, with the strings of the pair tuned an octave apart. This is 
usually done on the "bourdon," or bass strings, for added clarity and 
        On the odder relatives of the guitar, if the neck-to-bridge 
distance seems a little smaller than a guitar's, measure both of them! If 
this "scale" is shorter than a guitar's, it's very possible that the 
instrument needs to be tuned to a higher pitch. A short-scale instrument 
is meant to be tuned high, otherwise the strings will not have the correct 
amount of tension to adequately stress the soundboard, and thus will 
rattle, twang, and have no volume whatsoever. 
        To find out where to tune it, put the instrument beside a known 
instrument of similar design, with both bridges in line with each other. 
If the nut (the piece between the fingerboard and the peghead) on the 
unknown instrument is below the nut on the known instrument, then you must 
count the frets between the known's nut, on it's fingerboard, and the nut 
on the other instrument. The tones played on the nearest fret of the known 
to the other nut will work as a tuning guide for the other instrument. 
This may sound complex, but try works just fine! 
        This does NOT apply to Lutes, however, and be VERY careful not to 
overstress the soundboard or the bridge, to avoid damage to the instrument 
due to over-tensioning the strings. Go carefully, and if you are using 
wire strings on any instrument, use the lightest gauge possible. 


  Knives? KNIVES? It's 1183 and we're all barbarians! 
  We ALL carry knives! 
             -Elanor of Aquitane "The Lion in Winter"

 Pre-Dark Ages: Development of chain-mail
                Bards in Ireland
                Carrier pigeons
                Compass (China)
                Platonistic thought

 400 CE: Use of the stirrup in China
         Silk cultivation brought to Constantinople
         The city of Ys is submerged
         Kama Sutra

 450 CE: Establishment of the seven "liberal arts" as a course of study
         Decline of "classic" Paganisim

                           "DARK AGES"
 500 CE: Boethius: "De Institutione Musica"
         Paddle-wheel boats
         Taliesin, Aneirin, Llywarch Hen
         Alexander of Trales "de re medica" 
         Decimal notation in India
         Gregorian Chant
         First sighting of Loch Ness Monster

 600 CE: Earliest cast iron, in China
         Printing of books, in China
         First Church bell, in Rome 
         Development of the Crwth in Wales
         Caliph Uthman sets the form of al Quran (Koran)
         Petroleum used in Japan
         Isadore of Seville "originum sive etymologiarium libri XX"
         Porcelain in China
         Cotton clothing introduced in Islam

 650 CE: Muslim conquest of North Africa
         Sutton Hoo burial
         Glass windows in English churches
         Greek Fire

 700 CE: Papermaking introduced into Near East from China
         Stirrup introduced into Western Europe from Asia
         "Mouldboard" plow introduced into Western Europe by Slavs
         "Three-field" soil rotation introduced in Western Europe
         Irish and Anglo-Saxon missionaries on continent
         First Arab coinage
         Water mills
         Feudalisim begins
         Abu Masa Dshaffar
         First printed newspaper (China)

 750 CE: Muslim science enters Europe
         Beds in France and Germany
         Offa's Dyke
         Khazar nobility converts to Judaisim
         Old English
         Peter's Pence first paid in England

 800 CE: Earliest documented Church Organ, Aachen, Germany 
         Adoption of horse collar in Western Europe (from China?)
         Commas, periods, colons and semi-colons appear in texts
         "Anno Domine" (A.D.) dating system begins to be used
         Muslim culture enters Europe
         Music cultivated in the monasteries
         "The Utrecht Psalter"
         Roses in Europe
         The "Almagest"

 850 CE: Crossbow in use
         "Elder Edda"
         Candle clocks
         Famine in Western Europe
         Honain ibn Iszhak
         "Musica enchiriadis;" first work on polyphony

 900 CE: Earliest documented use of windmills, in Near East
         Earliest application of water power to industry
         Table forks used in Byzantium
         Vikings discover Iceland 
         Arabic musical instruments introduced into Europe;
            development of the Lute, kettledrum and trumpet
         Tropes and sequences
         Rise of Castles

 950 CE: London Bridge
         Introduction of "Arabic" numerals to Europe

                            "MIDDLE AGES"

 1000 CE: Avicenna (980-1037) chief medical authority
          Iron produced north of the Alps
          Guido of Arezzo develops "do-re-mi-fa-etc."
          Mantled chimney
          Gunpowder (China)

 1050 CE: Lateen Sail first used in Italy
          Soccer/Football in England
          Introduction of domestic cat to Europe
          "The Chanson de Roland"
          Final separation of Eastern and Western Christianity
          Winchester Tropes
          The Bayeaux Tapestry
          Apple pie in England
          Domesday Boke
          Polyphony replaces Gregorian chant
          Wilhelm v. Hirsau
          Solomon ben Yehudah ibn Gabirol
          Greek medicine to Western Europe
          Toledan table of positions of stars
          Founding of the "Hashishin," or Ismaili Assassins

 1100 CE: Earliest manufacture of paper in Europe, by Muslims in Spain
          Use of the crossbow forbidden against Christians by the Church 
          Mined coal supplements use of charcoal as fuel
          Umar Kahyyam
          Oldest European paper document
          Investiture of Geoffrey Plantagenet with Arms; first known use
                                                        of true Heraldry
          St. Marital organum
          Gondolas in Venice
          Ibn Ezra
          Middle English
          "Roman d'Alexandre"
          "Roman de Thebes"
          "Roman d'Eneas"
          "Roman de Troie"
          Islamic science declines
          Miracle plays
          Playing cards (China)
          First Scots coins

 1150 CE: Earliest use of magnetic compass in Europe
          "Roman de Brut"
          "Roman de Rou"
          Earliest documented windmill in Europe
          Paper (Moorish Spain)
          Chess in England
          Joint Stock companies
          Treadle loom
          Troubadors in Provence
          Liturgical drama
          "Roman de Reynard"
          Snorri Sturluson
          Horse-racing in England
          Glass windows in English houses
          First silver Florins minted
          Tea arrives in Japan from China
          "Azure, a saltire argent" adopted as Scots National flag
          Aristotlean thought

 1200 CE: Albertus Magnus 
          Trouveres in France
          Minnesingers in Germany
          The Alhambra
          Thomas of Celano "Dies Irae"
          Engagement rings come into fashion
          Indigo imported into England
          "faux bourdon"
          Court jesters
          Sinbad the Sailor
          Arabic (Indian) numerals introduced in Europe
          Wire strings for musical instruments
          Sonnet develops in Italy
          Roger Bacon
          Tiled roofs in London
          First giraffes shown in Europe
          "Roman de la Rose"
          "De sphaero" John of Hollywood (Sacrobosco)
          The Mongols
          Cotton manufactured in Moorish Spain
          Leprosy enters Europe
          "Summer Is Icumen In"

 1250 CE: Double-entry book-keeping
          Marco Polo travels to China and India
          Spectacles invented
          Mechanical clock
          First documented use of spinning wheel in Europe
          First appearance of Kings-of-Arms
          ars antiqua
          English musicians in Paris
          St Thomas Aquinas "Summa Theologica"
          Roger Bacon "Opus Maius"
          Adam de la Hale "Robin et Marion" 
          Longbow introduced to English armies
          Jalal ad-Din Rumi
          Portative organs
          Goose quill used for writing
          Gold Florins minted
          Linen manufactured in England
          "The Harrowing of Hell"
          Block printing of books in Ravenna, Netherlands, and Germany


 1300 CE: First large scale production of paper in Europe, in Italy and Germany
          First large scale production of gunpowder in Europe
          First use of the word "Peer" in England
          Mass of Tournai
          First use of cannon 
          Earliest cast-iron in Europe
          Table forks in use in Europe
          Title of "Duke" introduced in England 
          "Ars Nova"
          Decline of true feudalisim
          Avignon Exile of the Papacy
          "Aucassin et Nicolette"
          Dante "The Divine Comedy"
          "Roman de Fauvel"
          First French "Operette"
          The Zohar
          First toll roads in England
          Glass mirrors
          First Sequins coined
          Lyons silk industry developed
          Noh drama in Japan develops
          Pedal organ
          Sternpost rudders on ships
          Tyl Eulenspiegel

 1350 CE: Black Death in Europe
          Rise of mercenaries
          Guillaume de Machaut "Mass of Notre Dame"
          Economic and agricultural depression in Europe
          Bocaccio "The Decameron"
          William Langland "The Vision of Piers Plowman"
          Wycliffe translates the Bible into English
          Wycliffe "de civili dominio"
          Chaucer "The Canterbury Tales"
          The Pope gives the Church jurisdiction over accusations of sorcery
          Danse Macabre
          Ankor Wat (Kampuchea) deserted
          High point of manuscript illumination
          Open-air tennis popular in England
          Clavichord and Cembalo
          Riding sidesaddle for women enters England 
          First Francs coined
          Steel-prodded crossbows
          Playing cards in Germany

 1400 CE: Gutenberg invents use of movable type for printing 
          Sewing machines (?)
          Earliest account of the sea-quadrant  
          Hand-held guns become a factor in warfare
          Rise of the Duchy of Burgundy
          Social dance of mixed pairs
          "Tres Riches Heures" of the Duc de Berry
          Thomas a Kempis "The Imitation of Christ"
          "White notation" introduced in England
          Beginnings of chemical technology
          Alchemy becomes a swindler's paradise
          Giovanni da Prato "Paradiso degli Alberti"
          Ghiberti "Gates of Paradise"
          Jan and Hubert Van Eyck "The Ghent Altarpiece"
          Donatello "David"
          Meistersingers in Germany 
          Vatican Library  
          Publication of the "Reformation of Kaiser Sigsimund"
          Drift nets in use in Holland
          The Double-Eagle becomes the emblem of the Holy Roman Empire
          Slave trade from Africa
          Coffee exported from Mocha, Arabia

 1450 CE: Development of serpentine-lock for firearms
          "Donation of Constantine" proved a forgery
          The "capitiulum," or paragraph mark, appears in texts
          Fouquet "Book of Hours of Etienne Chevalier"
          Bamburgh Castle: first English fortress taken by cannon
          Lochamer "Liederbuch"
          William Caxton sets up print shop in England
          Cornazzano "Libro dell'arte del danzare"
          Mazarin Bible printed by Gutenberg
          First Doctor of Music degree awarded at Oxford
          Botticelli "La Primavera"
          James Obrecht
          Regiomontanus "De triangulis"
          Sir Thomas Mallory "Morte d'Arthur"
          Unification of Spain (1492)
          Hieronymus Bosch "Temptation of St. Anthony"
          Leonardo da Vinci "Last Supper"
          Franchino Gafori "Practica Musicae"
          Ottaviano dei Petrucci prints first complete song collections
                                               from movable type 
          French Royal mail service
          Origin of the handgun
          Football, golf and bowling in England and Scotland
          Beginning of Ballet
          The expressions "million," "billion," and "zero" come into use
          The symbols "plus" (+) and "minus" (-) come into use
          First pawnshops
          Secular censorship of books
          First manual of navigation
          Savonarola's followers destroy most Greek & Roman painting
          Five-course "guitar"

 1500 CE: Development of wheelock firearms
          Handguns become practical
          Persia (Iran) becomes Shi'ite
          La Volta
          Acid-etch printing
          Table forks used in Venice
          Syphylis epidemic in Europe
          Development of the Scots Claymore
          Columbus introduces the hammock to Europe
          Development of the Rapier
          First book of Frottole
          Montalvo "Las Sergas de Esplandian"
          Modern English develops from Middle English
          Leonardo da Vinci "Mona Lisa"
          Michaelangelo "David"
          Albrecht Durer "Adam and Eve"
          Petrucci issues first printed lute tablature 
          First manual of Lute-playing
          Michaelangelo begins "Sistine Chapel"
          Erasmus "In Praise of Folly"
          Grunewald "Isenheim Altarpiece"
          Machiavelli "The Prince"
          Raphael "Sistine Madonna"
          Thomas More "Utopia"
          Ariosto "Orlando Furioso"
          First black-lead pencils
          Silver Guilders minted
          Pocket handkerchiefs
          Titan "Deposition"
          Castiglione "The Courtier"
          Copernicus "De Revolitionibus Orbium Coelesticum"
          Rabelais "Gargantua"
          First Italian Madrigals 
          Hans Holbein the Younger "The Ambassadors"
          Titian "Venus of Urbino"
          Jacob Arcadelt first book of five-part madrigals 
          Michaelangelo "Last Judgement"
          First church in the New World 
          Cellini "Perseus"
          Edward VI's "Book of Common Prayer"
          Pineapple in Europe
          Coffee in Europe
          East Asian porcelain in Europe
          General use of Spinning-wheel
          Halley's Comet (1531)
          Silk-manufacture introduced in France
          Silk stockings
          Turkey eaten in England 
          First manual of surgery
          First diving-bells
          Firearms brought to Japan
          Cardano "Ars magnae"
          Decimal fractions
          Algebraic letter-symbols
          First Christmas tree, at Strasbourg 
          First European botanical garden
          First pocket watches

 1550 CE: Development of the miquelet-lock for firearms
          "Ralph Roister-Doister"
          Game of Curling, in Scotland
          Beginnings of the use of the "belted plaid" in Scotland
          Aldus Manutius, Venetian publisher, codifies puctuation marks
          The compound microscope 
          Chittarra Battente
          Peter Breughel the Elder "The Wedding Dance"
          William Byrd
          Thomas Tallis
          Tintoretto "Ascension of Christ"
          Montaigne "Essays"
          Marlowe "Doctor Faustus"
          Byrd "Songs of Sundrie Natures"
          Edmund Spencer "The Faerie Queen"
          Tintoretto "The Last Supper"
          Wm. Shakespeare "Romeo and Juliet"
          John Dowland "First Book of Songs or Ayres"
          Development of the present day violin
          Tobacco in Europe
          Snuff-taking spreads
          Modern chess
          Tulips in Europe
          Index Librorum Prohibitorum
          Milled coins in England
          Sweet potatoes and tobacco in England
          Sedan-chairs in general use in England
          Italian cooking predominates in Europe
          Giovanni Gabrieli "Sacrae Symphonie"
                            "Sonata Pian'e Forte"
          First knitting machine
          Pompeii discovered
          Potatoes grown in Spain and Italy
          Tomatoes in England
          First "W.C.'s" in England
          Approximate end of Feudalisim, rise of sovereign states
          Siege of Sancerre (last military use of sling)
          "Divine Right" of Kings
          First field hospitals
          Chocolate popular in Spain
          Potatoes reach England 
          Arbeau "Orchesographie"
          Persecution of Japanese Christians

 1600 CE: Sir Walter Raleigh plants potatoes on his estates in Ireland
          Development of the true flint-lock in firearms
          "Baroque" guitar
          Fruits preserved in cane sugar
          Decimal point
          Development of the Scots basket-hilted broadsword ("Claybeg")
          Table forks fashionable in England
          First Dictionary of English
          Pascal develops the mechanical computer
          Acting legitimized as a respectable profession in France
          Use of the Stage-coach 
          "Before Christ" (B.C.) dating system begins to be used
          William Tell appears in folk ballads
          Wm. Shakespeare "Hamlet" (1601)
          Gallileo discovers law of falling bodies ((1602)
          Dutch East India Company (1602)
          Wm. Shakespeare "Othello" (1604)
          Monteverdi "Fifth Book of Madrigals" (1605)
          Cervantes "Don Quixote (Part 1)" 
          Francis Bacon "On the Advancement of Learning"
          Ben Jonson "Volpone"
          Wm. Shakespeare "MacBeth" (1606)
          Monteverdi "Orfeo" (1607)
          Jamestown Colony
          Glass bottles exported from Jamestown (1608)
          Development of the Telescope (1608)
          First checks (1608)
          Johannes Kepler "Astronomia Nova" (1609)
          Tea from China (1609)
          "Parthenia" (1611)
          King James Bible (1611)
          Baronets (1611)
          Bacon "Novum Organum" (1612)
          Copper coins (1613)
          Rosicrucians (ca. 1614)
          English glass industry (1614)
          Peter Paul Rubens "Descent from the Cross" (1614)
          Trigonometrical triangulation in cartography (1617)
          Potoatoes banned in Burgundy as a cause of leprosy (1619)
          Pilgrims land at Plymouth (1620)
          First submarine (1620)
          Deaf-and-Dumb sign language (1620)
          Potatoes planted in Germany (1621)
          Shakespeare "First Folio" (1623)
          Patent law in England (1623)
          Name "gas" used (1624)
          Franz Hals "The Laughing Cavalier" (1624)
          First fire engines in England (1625)
          The Siege of La Rochelle ends (1626)
          William Harvey "Essay on the Motion of the Heart and the Blood" 
          Founding of the city of Boston, Mass. by the Puritans (1630)
          Pirates in Tortuga (1630)
          Public advertising (1630)
          Rembrandt van Rijn "The Anatomy Lesson" (1631)
          Taj Mahal begun (1634)
          Pierre Cournelle "Le Cid" (1636)
          Tea appears in Paris (1636)
          Descartes "Discourse on Method" (1637)
          Anthony van Dyke "The Children of Charles I" (1637)
          First public opera theater, in Venice
          Torture abolished in England (1639)
          First comic operas (1639)
          "The Bay Psalm Book" (1640)
          First American whiskey made (1640)
          Hope Diamond purchased by Tavernier (1640)
          Rembrandt "The Night Watch" (1642)
          Income and property tax introduced in England (1642)
          Lope de Vega (1647)
          End of Thirty Years War (1648)
          Descartes "Musicae Compendium" (1650)
          Beginning of extermination of N. American Indian (1650)
          "Long lunge" and "parry-riposte" in fencing (no date, but after



                         "First, we kill all the lawyers..."
                                            -Wm. Shakespeare

        The following is a list of generalized definitions of some medieval
legal terms. Note that not all are exact legal definitions, but rather have
been somewhat simplified and paraphrased.
        For the most part, they relate to England and France. Where they have 
another origin, it is so marked.

ALLODIUM: L.; land held from no LORD; free ownership. See FEODUM SOLIS.
APANAGE: O. Fr.; French usage of giving lands to non-Heirs Royal of the Crown
                 of France. These lands could not be sold, mortgaged, or used
                 as a dowry, and passed back to the King in the extinction
                 of the line.
ASSIZES: O. Fr.; the LAWS imposed by the King with the consent of His NOBLES;
                 the codification of LAWS, or a type of LAW court that ruled
                 on customary LAW.
AUXILIUM: L., the military service owed by a VASSAL to his LORD.

              Five types were recognized:

                1) the defense of the LORD's castle
                2) the ransom of the LORD, if he was taken captive
                3) the costs of the knighthood of his eldest son
                4) the costs of the marriage of his eldest daughter
                5) participation with the LORD in a Crusade

BENEFICE: Land given by the LORD to a vassal, for the vassal's use. It remains
          the property of the LORD, and is not inheritable, in the old sense 
          of the word's use. This changed after 875 CE, when BENEFICES became 
          inheritable, "real" property of the vassal.
BOROUGH: a "free" city. (Burg, Burgus, Burh, Bourg)
BREHON LAW: the COMMON LAW of Ireland and Scotland.
BURGHER: a citizen of a BOROUGH, usually owning a house within the city 
         limits, and prosperous enough to hire others to work for them.
CAIN: (Scotland) a tax paid to maintain the LORD.
CHARTER OF FRANCHISE: A document freeing a SERF; a document freeing a town.
CHARTER OF LIBERTIES: the formal statement by the Crown of the privleges of
                      the NOBILITY.
CITY: a town wherein a Bishop has his formal "seat."
COMITATUS: L,; an armed group of men attached to a leader.
COMMONER: a non-noble.
COMMON LAW: traditional LAW of an area or region.
COMMUNIO JURATA: L.; a community of people who have pledged their FEALTY to
                     themselves and their community. The Dark Horde tends to
                     fall under this classification.
COMMUNITAS REGNI: L.; the community of the Realm; the general representation
                      of the nation in Parliament, CURIA Regis, etc.
COMPURGATION: a person of good birth and reputation could bring two witnesses
              of good standing, to swear he was telling the truth.  Should the
              accuser bring co-accusers, the defendant had to bring an equal
              number of compurgators.
CONSILIUM: L.; to advise the LORD at his Court. The decisions made were 
               binding on the VASSALS.
CONSUETUDINES: L; customary taxes.
CONVETH: (Scotland) providing food, shelter &c to the LORD and his following.
COURT OF THE KING'S BENCH: an appellate court, headed by the King or His
                           personal representative.
CURIA: L.; "Court" in the sense of an assembly of advisors to make LAW and 
           render decisions to a feudal superior; the Royal Court

                CURIA Regis: the advisors of the King
                             (also called "Plenary CURIA," "High CURIA," or
                              "Haute CURIA."
                CURIA Princeps: the advisors of a Prince
                CURIA Baronis: the advisors of a Baron

CUSTOMS: Taxes paid by merchants and peasants for the use of roads, bridges,
         or the gates of BOROUGHS; the COMMON LAW.
DESAVEAU: The custom that a peasant could "disavow" his Lord and take service
          with another, under some circumstances. 
ECHEVINAGE: O. Fr.; a tax in France to maintain the offices of local officers.
ESTATES: the social classes, derived from the early medieval concept of:

                1) Clergy
                2) NOBILITY
                3) Peasants (in actuality BURGHERS, as the peasants were
                             more passive participants.)

EXPEDITIO: Med. L; A military campaign, a duty owed by a VASSAL to his LORD,
           limited to 40 days at the VASSAL's expense, after which the LORD
           had to pay expenses.
FEACHT: (Scotland) Military service on behalf of the LORD.

        Liege FEALTY: the FEALTY sworn by a Knight; the VASSAL swears
                      absolute obedience to the LORD. See FIEF MILITUM.
        Simple FEALTY: a pledge of loyalty to the LORD.
        Service FEALTY: a pledge of service to the LORD.

        All of the above fall under HOMAGE, being two-way contracts, but
        "Simple" FEALTY and "Service" FEALTY do not require absolute
        obedience, but place limits on the obligations required of the

FELONY: A breach of HOMAGE, a violation of the contract between LORD and 
        VASSAL, a violation of feudal CUSTOMS.

        The legitimate breaches of the contract included:

        1) failure to protect the VASSAL,
        2) refusal of justice by denial of access to the LORD's court, or
        3) dishonourable conduct towards the vassal

FEUDALISIM: The relations and interdependence between LORD and VASSAL, based 
            on the FIEF, or ownership of land.
FIDELITAS: L; faithfulness to Christianity; a VASSAL's loyalty to his LORD.

        Blenche-firme: land held for a token payment.
        Feh or Feo: O. Ger., "cattle." (root word)
        Feodum: Med.L., fief; Med. Latin variants were "feo, feos, fedum,
                        feum, feus, feuz, fevum, feudum"
        Feodum solis: absolute ownership of land not under a feudal LORD.
        Feodum vavassoris: implys "vested in the land, but does not control it"
        Feu firma: a perpetual, heritable holding.
        Fief de bursa: a fee paid by Kings for military service to their 
        Fief de camera: the revenues of the Royal chamber.
        Fief de dignite: a BENEFICE given to public officials
        Fief francum: a free fief; exempted from some or all service to the 
        Fief ligium: land held from the "primary LORD," from the LORD who came
                     first in any obligations; land held of the King.
        Fief militum: land held by a knight.
        Fief loricae: see FIEF MILITUM.
        Fio: (It.) payment for honourable service; a "fee."
        Frankalmoign: land held for no secular service at all.
        Vassi casati: L., Carolingian "vassal with a fief"

FIRMA BURGI: L.; the right to collect taxes within a city by it's municipal
FISCUS: L; the King's personal land and properties.
FORFEITURE: A VASSAL surrendering his land, or other property, to his LORD,
            after conviction in the LORD's court.
FUERO: Sp.; charters of liberties and PRIVLEGES.
FYRD: Ang. Sax.; the military service of free-men, the popular militia.
GABELLE: O. Fr.; any form of indirect tax; the tax on salt, in France,
                 from which the NOBILITY, the clergy, and other PRIVLEGED
                 persons were exempted.
GOMBETTE: Fr.; Customary LAW of Burgundy.
HOMAGE: (L. "Hominum") The oath taken by a VASSAL to signify his 
                       relationship with the LORD. It is a "contract,"
                       and binds both parties to certain acts. If a LORD
                       violates the contract, the VASSAL can defy ( de-FIEF )
                       the LORD with no FELONY.
HUNDRED: Eng.; a sub-division of a Shire, in England.
HYDE: Ang. Sax.; a unit of land corresponding to a peasant's family estate.
IMMUNITY: an area or group of men exempted from a feudal obligation, or tax.
INQUEST: an investigation by Royal officials, usually into tax matters.
IQTA'A: Ar.; Islamic form of Feudalisim, based on landed income to military 
             commanders in return for military service.
ITINERANT JUSTICES: Royal officials sent around to the Shires to administer
                    justice, check up on affairs, etc.
JURY TRIAL: free-men met in a body, in England, to decide guilt or innocence. 
            Their decisions made up the COMMON LAW.
JUS PRIMAE NOCTIS: The right of the Lord to spend the first night of a
                   peasant's marriage with the bride. This was usually
                   commuted to a money fine.
KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRE: a separate class of knights which was employed in the
                      administration of countys and shires, in England.
                      The German equivalent was known as "JUNKER."
LAW:  In the Middle Ages, LAW was considered to have been dictated by Divine 
      Will, and revealed to wise men. The most ancient legal precedents and 
      CUSTOMS were considered to be the best LAW, and much of Continental
      Europe wound up modeling secular LAW after the old Roman LAW.
      In Byzantium, secular and sacred LAW were somewhat intermingled, with
      secular LAW taking precedence.
      In Western Europe, however, religious and secular LAW were separate 
      bodies. Church LAW was known as Canon Law, and applied to the clergy, 
      and to the secular world in matters of the administration of the 
      Sacraments, such as marriage, and to the immunity of the clergy from
      secular LAW. This is the root of the conflict between Church and State.
      St. Augustine arranged LAW thru three levels:

                1) Divine LAW, a perfect system comprehended thru faith and
                2) Natural LAW, which could be understood by all creatures,
                   lacked the perfection of faith, and could be improved by
                3) Temporal (secular) LAW, obedience to which was enjoined
                   on all Christians, save where it conflicted with Divine
                   or Canon LAW.

LEYRWITE: a fine paid by servile persons, usually female, for unlawful
          sexual intercourse.
LIEGE: O. Fr.; the LORD to whom a VASSAL swears "Liege" FEALTY, usually the 
LIBERTAS: L.; used in two senses:

                1) The freedom of the Church from secular interference,
                   "Libertas ecclesiae."
                2) "freedom under Divine LAW," only found within the
                    Church and according to its' precepts.

LORD: (L,: "Dominus" or "Senior," Ang. Sax.: "Hlaord," Sp.: "Senor,"
       O. Fr.: "Siegneur," etc.)
      A LORD was anyone who held VASSALS, and land cultivated by dependent
MAINMORTE: O. Fr.; land, or other property, that passed to the LORD on the
                   death of the VASSAL or SERF holding it.
MANSUS: L.; see HYDE. The inhabitants of MANSII were divided generally
            into three categories:

                1) Mansus servilus: SERFs
                2) Mansus liberis: free-men
                3) Mansus lidilus: freed SERFs

MERCHET: a fine paid by bondsmen when they were married. This was one of
         the marks of servility.
NOBILITY: the upper social class in feudal Europe. They were characterized
          by the following:
                1) Ownership of land, as a VASSAL to another LORD.
                2) A military obligation to the King
                3) An administrative obligation to the King
                4) Possession of heraldry

          The NOBILITY was divided, roughly, into two classes:

                1) Noblesse de epee: "of the Sword," Knights
                2) Noblesse de robe: " of the Robe," administrators

NOTARY: A legal officer whose duty was to write, witness, care for,
        and otherwise take care of documents. He was a legal officer,
        and thus, everything he wrote/witnessed was considered legal
        evidence. They were certified by the King or the Pope.
ORDEAL: a COMMON LAW practice, discouraged by the Church, which submitted
        the accused, or the accuser, or both, to the Judgement of God,
        usually with fire or water. Whoever died, or whose wounds festered,
        was considered guilty.
PRIVLEGIUM FORI: L.; the exemption of clergy from secular LAW; "clerical
PROVISIONS OF OXFORD: a confirmation of Magna Carta by Henry III of England,
                      which formed the basis of Parliament.
PANDECTS: manuals containing interpetations of Roman LAW.
PEERS: the VASSALS of a LORD who are equal among themselves.
PRIMUS INTER PARES: L.; "first among equals," the ideal condition of a LORD
                        to his VASSALS.
PRIVLEGE: a private LAW applicable to one person, or a group of persons,
          or a social body.
PURVEYANCE: the feudal right of the LORD to stay at a VASSAL's home for a
            stipulated amount of time. This was generally commuted to a
            regular monetary payment by the VASSAL to the LORD.
REGALIA: L.; the Crown, Sceptre, Robe &c worn by the King as a mark of his
             Kingship; it also means the enfeoffment of Royal Authority to
             a VASSAL, usually the rights to make LAW, to tax, to raise
             armies, and to render justice.
SALIC LAW: the COMMON LAW of France.
SCHWABENSPIEGEL: Ger.; the COMMON LAW of Bavaria. It also included Imperial
SCUTAGE: (Lat.: "scutum," O. Fr. "ecuage") a tax imposed on Knights in lieu
         of military service. Used by the King of England in the late Middle
         Ages as a form of revenue to hire mercenaries.
SERF: A SERF was defined by three things:

                1) he/she was bound to the land; they could not travel
                2) they had no legal rights in the courts, and
                3) they could not testify in courts of LAW.

SEGEANTS: the upper strata of the peasantry. Some received lands, and were
          VASSALS of NOBILITY. They were the "supervisory" class of peasant.
SIETE PARTIDAS: Sp.; the constitutional code of Castile.
SLUAGED: (Scotland) Military service on behalf of the LORD.
SOKE: Ang. Sax.; the free tenure of land by a peasant
STATUTE OF YORK: made a distinction between the King, who was limited in his
                 powers by his coronation Oath, and Kingship, which abstract
                 idea was considered to have unconstrained powers. This, and
                 Magna Carta, were the roots of the concept of the 
                 "Constitutional Monarchy."
TAILLE: tax imposed on the revenues of non-NOBILITY.
TELONIUM: L; an excise tax paid by merchants.
TENANTS-IN-CHIEF: NOBILITY that held land directly of the King.
TENURE: possession of land in FIEF from another LORD, who held of another,
        and so on directly to the King. Simple ownership of land merely made
        one free, but not always NOBLE.
THING: the assembly of free-men and/or barons of Sweden.
TRIAL: usually done in one of three ways:

        2) Trial-by-Combat
        3) ORDEAL

        JURY TRIAL developed in England as a fourth alternative.

VASSAL: Someone who, by a series of formal acts, usually HOMAGE, commits 
        themselves to serve another, usually receiving a FIEF in return.
        The obligations of a VASSAL were AUXILIUM and CONSILIUM, which see.
               2) the services of the VASSAL
               3) the VASSALS of a LORD as a body
VICAR: L; one who acts as a proxy in an official capacity. In the SCA, their
          powers tend to be severely limited.
VILLE FRANCHE: ( L.: "Villa franca") a town chartered by the King, and given
               certain privleges, but not self-governing.
VILLEIN: Fr.; in France: 1) a rural or urban non-noble
                         2) a rural free-man
              in England: a peasant with enough land to support his family.

VISITATION: a formal visit by one in authority for enforcement of LAW.
WARRANTIA: L.; the obligation to produce warrantors and/or COMPURGATORS.
               Failure or inability to do so could result in outlawry.
WERGILD: Ger; monetary compensation paid by a murderer to the relatives of the
YEOMAN: in England, a free-man, who owned his land. 

                            *  GEOGRAPHY  *

 BIGHT: a bend, or indentation in the shoreline; a bend in a river.
 BOWER: a shaded, leafy arbor.
 CAIRN: a pile of rocks (man-made), usually fairly small.
 CROFT: a small, enclosed field or pasture; the small farm itself.
 CHASE: a private, unenclosed game preserve.
 COPSE: a small thicket of trees and/or shrubs.

 COPPICE: a fenced-in group of trees.
 DALE: see VALE, not quite so large.
 DELL: a wooded DALE.
 DOWNS: hilly, grassy uplands.
 FEN: flat swampy land, boggy, usually forming peat.
 GLADE: a clearing in a forest.
 GLEN: a mountain valley.
 GROVE: a group of trees, free of undergrowth.
 HAM: a small village.
 HEATH: heather-covered MOOR, not so soggy.
 HEDGEROW: a hedge used as a boundary-marker.
 LEA: see SWARD.
 LOCH: a Scottish TARN.
 MERE: a lake, pond, or sometimes marsh.
 MEDE: a cultivated field, or pasture, larger than a CROFT.
 MOOR: a high, broad tract of open land, poorly drained, with patches of
       HEATH and sometimes FENS.
 RILL: a small brook or stream.
 STRAND: land bordering a river, sea, or lake; a beach.
 STILE: a stairway over a fence.
 SHINGLE: a pebble-covered beach; the pebbles on the beach.
 SPINNEY: a COPSE on the edge of a valley or cliff.
 SWARD: a lawn, meadow, or wide expanse of grass.
 SWALE: a shady, cool, and sometimes moist SWARD.
 TOR: a pile of rocks on top of a hill.
 TARN: a mountain lake without tributaries.
 THORP: a small village.
 VALE: a broad, low-sided valley, with a stream running thru it.
 WEIR: a fence to trap fish.
 WELD: a patchily wooded DOWN.
 WICK: a small village.


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